Abu Bakr al-Siddiq

Abu Bakr al-Siddiq

Abu Bakr al-Siddiq

The rightly guided Caliphs, May Allah be Pleased with them, followed the steps of Messenger of Allah . Among many things, they give special attention to the poor and catered for the needy, took interest in social solidarity among the entire society’s people and exerted their utmost in saving all those in distress or in need. It is no wonder that they did so, as they were nurtured by the Messenger and learned from his purely divine doctrines, in words and deeds. Therefore, their caliphate rule was a mercy to Muslims, as it gave Muslims access to a way of life which the other nations, even the modern ones, have failed to obtain. What we see now in the West is just provision of social insurance to the incapacitated. This type of insurance is only provided to the people against what they pay when they are healthy; they are given back what they have paid before. But the system at the era of the rightly guided caliphs far exceeds this, as the state then provided for all the Islāmic society people specific shares from the Baitul Mal or House of Charity, from the moment one is born until he/she dies. The state even nurtured his sons and relatives after he had passed away. A society with such values and principles would undoubtedly dominate the world. It is taken for granted that the era of the rightly guided caliphs was the best in the post- prophet era, as the nation was ruled by the greatest companions close to the prophet . The prophet had praised them and asserted that they would be granted the Paradise by Allah in the Hereafter. In ruling the nation, the rightly guided caliphs sought help of the trustworthy companions of the prophet who served as the elite in the fields of thought, politics, administration, economy and military leadership. The moment Abu Bakr al-Siddiq ,  May Allah be pleased with him, embraced Islam, he spent all his money for the cause of Islam. He promptly set people free and helped end the hardships of the downtrodden Muslims. When he assumed the caliphate after the death of the prophet , he followed his steps in terms of catering for the poor, the needy and those in distress. He even led wars on Redda (apostasy) in defense of the poor’s right ordained by Allah as a duty on the rich, after those mortaddeen( apostates) stopped to observe this great pillar of Islam, mainly zakat which establishes a society enjoying solidarity between its poor and its rich.   Abu Bakr As-Siddiq RA ᴴᴰ source    First: House of Charity.. The Poor’s focus of concern After Abu Bakr , May Allah...

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The Rightly Guided Caliphs

The Rightly Guided Caliphs

  With the death of Muhammad , the Muslim community was faced with the problem of succession. Who would be its leader? There were four persons obviously marked for leadership: Abu Bakr al-Siddiq , who had not only accompanied Muhammad to Medina ten years before, but had been appointed to take the place of the Prophet as leader of public prayer during Muhammad’s last illness; ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab , an able and trusted Companion of the Prophet; ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan , a respected early convert; and ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib  , Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law. To avoid contention among various groups, ‘Umar suddenly grasped Abu Bakr’s hand, the traditional sign of recognition of a new leader. Soon everyone concurred and before dusk Abu Bakr   had been recognized as the khalifah of Muhammad. Khalifah- anglicized as caliph – is a word meaning “successor” but also suggesting what his historical role would be: to govern according to the Quran and the practice of the Prophet. Abu Bakr’s   caliphate was short but important. An exemplary leader, he lived simply, assiduously fulfilled his religious obligations, and was accessible and sympathetic to his people. But he also stood firm when, in the wake of the Prophet’s death, some tribes renounced Islam; in what was a major accomplishment, Abu Bakr swiftly disciplined them. Later, he consolidated the support of the tribes within the Arabian Peninsula and subsequently funnelled their energies against the powerful empires of the East: the Sassanians in Persia and the Byzantines in Syria, Palestine, and Egypt. In short, he demonstrated the viability of the Muslim state. The second caliph, ‘Umar- appointed by Abu Bakr in a written testament – continued to demonstrate that viability. Adopting the title Amir al-Muminin, “Commander of the Believers,” ‘Umar extended Islam’s temporal rule over Syria, Egypt, Iraq, and Persia in what from a purely military standpoint were astonishing victories. Within four years after the death of the Prophet the Muslim state had extended its sway over all of Syria and had, at a famous battle fought during a sandstorm near the River Yarmuk, blunted the power of the Byzantines – whose ruler Heraclius had shortly before disdainfully rejected the letter from the unknown Prophet of Arabia. Even more astonishingly, the Muslim state administered the conquered territories with a tolerance almost unheard of in that age. At Damascus, for example, the Muslim leader Khalid ibn al-Walid signed a treaty which read as follows: This is what Khalid ibn al-Walid would grant to the inhabitants of Damascus if he enters therein: he promises to give them security for their lives, property and churches. Their city wall shall not be demolished, neither shall any Muslim be quartered in their houses....

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